There are several reasons while artificial insemination may be the best possible option for breeding. This most obvious reason for using artificial insemination is that it allows breeders to facilitate breeding that could not happen through other means. The option of either chilled semen or frozen semen being shipped internationally makes the need for transporting either female or male dogs between countries much less important or common. This, in turn, means that there is less danger for both dog owners and the dogs as travel posses the risk of injury, exposure to different diseases plus also prevents the need of extra vaccinations and possible quarantines.
The other benefit is that through artificial insemination even older dogs that are no longer interested in mating, or even younger dogs that are physically unable to breed can be used in semen collection processes at no risk or stress to the dog. For older dogs with a low sperm count or poor sperm motility the collection process can allow the technician to correctly calculate the live sperm necessary for each insemination tube, even if it means processing the sperm from more than one collection to obtain the correct formulation. Currently most AI breedings tend to produce smaller litters and there is a slightly decreased fertility rate over natural breeding, but most breeders consider this an acceptable compromise in being able to use different lines and avoid having to transport their dogs. Since breeders with training or artificial insemination technicians can complete the process either at an office or at the breeder's kennels, the ease of completing AI is making it more popular as technology advances.
Occasionally artificial insemination is also the only option for females that may show no interest in breeding or may be considered problem breeders. In some cases the female has lower levels of hormones, which prevent her from being correctly stimulated to stand for the male, or she may be extremely timid or aggressive which can also prevent breeding. Artificial insemination prevents any contact between the dog and the bitch, thereby reducing the stress and allowing for the successful insemination without the need for the physical breeding. In some cases surgical procedures for artificial insemination are preferred over the more common insertion through a small tube, typically the surgical process is only used under very specific conditions. A veterinarian is the only animal health care professional that should perform the surgical type of artificial insemination.
In addition artificial insemination helps to prevent the possibility of disease spread between the male and female. While most dogs are tested for common infectious diseases including those that are sexually transmitted, there is always the risk of injury during mating that may cause infections in either the male or female. The sterile method of insemination using a glass or plastic tube to insert the semen as well as using a sterile artificial vagina for the semen collection prevents any chance of this bacterial or disease spread. There is, however, always a risk that the semen itself may carry some form of disease that could be transmitted to the female and owners need to be aware of this possible although relatively low percentage risk.