Acquired Disorders
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Articles > Keywords > Acquired Disorders

Acquired Disorders

Found [159] Articles :: Page 10 of 11


Moon Blindness In Horses Has a Poor Long Term Prognosis

Moon blindness in horses has nothing to do with the moon, but historically many people though that the occurrence or reoccurrence of the disease become worse during different phases of the moon, hence the name. The correct name for moon blindness is equine recurrent uveitis or ERU and is still not fully understood by vets and horse owners. There are several different factors or precursors that can bring on the first episode of moon blindness, often it's relatively mild in nature and may not be problematic for the horse at all. Many times the first episode seems to correct itself, lulling the owner into a false sense of security about the horse's eyes. Every subsequent bout of the disease causes greater damage to the eye and the long term prognosis for horses with ERU is total blindness at some point in time. Since the episodes of moon blindness may occur frequently, within one or two weeks of each other or many only happen once a year or once every several years each horse will have a different progression of the condition. [...]

Naval Rupture In Foals

Often considered a result of specific line crosses and inbreeding, naval rupture has been noted in several breeds, including the Friesen Horse. Naval rupture is often called umbilical hernia, and can be serious is not treated. It is estimated that about one to two percent of all foals born have some type of umbilical hernia or naval rupture, not all which are obvious or serious. The naval rupture occurs when the abdominal walls around the umbilical cord do not form correctly, leaving a hole or weak area around the naval cord. When the foal is born the pressure through the birth canal as well as the act of struggling to stand can force loops of the intestine or fatty tissue down through the abdominal wall to form a bulge at the naval. This can happen in both male and female foals, although male foals also run the risk of having scrotal hernias as well. [...]

Overweight Horses Are At A Greater Health Risk

Overweight or obese horses are at the same types of health risks as overweight humans, dogs and any other type of animal. Since in the wild horses would be continually required to graze and forage, the chance of a horse in the wild becoming obese is almost non-existent. In captivity, horses are restricted to small areas, fed high carbohydrate, protein and fat diets, and only exercised for small periods of time per day, all leading to obesity problems. Obesity puts more strain on all the various aspects of the horse's body from breathing and respiration through to digestion and cardiac functioning. The more weight the horse is carrying the greater the stress will be on the cardiac and respiratory system, especially when the horse is being exercised. Since obese horses rarely get routine exercise, this difference in respiration and heart rate, especially in hot or humid weather can quickly lead to heat stroke and heat intolerance. The excessive body weight will also prevent the dissipation of heat in the natural body cooling process, further leading to problems with heat stroke and stress. [...]

OCD Lesions In Growing Juvenile Horses

OCD is a degenerative bone disease that is found in many types of animals, including horses. Osteochondritis dissecans or OCD is most commonly associated with younger horses that are rapidly growing and developing, and is also typically associated with horses that have longer leg bones. Longer leg bones means taller horses, so usually breeds that have a mature height of over 15 hands are more prone to OCD but it can also be seen occasionally in smaller and shorter horses. What is interesting is that there seems to be no difference between the tall heavy horses and the tall lighter horses, so weight itself is not the key factor, it is the length of the bones. In normal growing horses the ends of the bones that meet up at the joints are soft and this is where the growth occurs. As the cartilage becomes hard it adds to the length of the bone, resulting in growth. In horses with OCD the softer, growing ends of the bone do not harden, rather they stay soft and actually begin to break down, resulting in pain, swelling and lameness that may seem initially to move throughout the limbs. [...]

External Parasites Can Be Controlled

There are several different types of external parasites that can easily find a great place to live, feed and grow right on your horse. Good parasite control is simple, relatively low cost, and can prevent many types of anemia, secondary bacterial infections and even discomfort for your horse. Most external parasites that feed and live on horses also can affect other animals, including humans, so keeping your stables and horses free from parasites is helpful in several ways. Some of the most common external parasites found on horses are mites. These small, microscopic parasites can live on the skin, under the skin or in the hair follicles themselves. Each type of mite will cause itching and discomfort for the horse as well as allergic reactions to the toxins they produce. Hair loss and secondary bacterial infections due to scratching and licking are often the first signs of a mite infection. Mites can also live in the ears and will cause a dry, scabby look to the ears and cause a dark, foul smelling waxy discharge from the ears. While not fatal themselves, a severe mite infection in an already compromised horse can be life-threatening. [...]

How To Determine If Your Horse Has Worms

There are several different types of worms that can be found in horses, ponies, donkeys and mules, so having a good idea of the types of worms you may be looking for as well as the signs of worm infestations is important. Since commercial worm treatment pastes or medications kill most types of worms commonly found in horses when used at the correct time they are effective in developing a management and worm control program that will ensure your horses are worm free year round. Young foals are particularly susceptible to a type of worm known as an ascarid. The foal swallows the ascarid when he or she is grazing, usually by contact with old fecal material that contains ascarid eggs. Once inside the digestive tract the ascarid hatches and grows to the larva stage, moving to the lungs to develop and then returning to the intestine, often reaching up to 20 inches in length. While in the lungs the ascarid can contribute to respiratory problems such as pneumonia. [...]

How To Determine If Your Horse Has Worms

There are several different types of worms that can be found in horses, ponies, donkeys and mules, so having a good idea of the types of worms you may be looking for as well as the signs of worm infestations is important. Since commercial worm treatment pastes or medications kill most types of worms commonly found in horses when used at the correct time they are effective in developing a management and worm control program that will ensure your horses are worm free year round. Young foals are particularly susceptible to a type of worm known as an ascarid. The foal swallows the ascarid when he or she is grazing, usually by contact with old fecal material that contains ascarid eggs. Once inside the digestive tract the ascarid hatches and grows to the larva stage, moving to the lungs to develop and then returning to the intestine, often reaching up to 20 inches in length. While in the lungs the ascarid can contribute to respiratory problems such as pneumonia. [...]

Pin-Toes Cause Stress On Joints

Pin-toes, so named because the toes actually point in towards each other rather than straight forward can be very problematic for the horse and are not just a conformation problem. The normal horse's hoof is made up of the toe or rounded front part, the quarters or sides of the hoof and the heel or back of the hoof. In a correctly conformed horse the toe of the hoof should point directly forward and the hoof wall or the strong outer part of the hoof as well as the frog or spongy cushion of the back of the hoof should allow equal weight distribution as well as correct alignment of the fetlock, knee, stifle, shoulder, hip and pelvic bones. Usually pin-toes occur on the front feet although they may also occur in the back. Pin-toes are usually congenital, or the foal is born with the inward turning of the feet. Often this is also seen in prior generations within specific lines, but it can also be due to growth problems and joint malformations due to OCD or degenerative joint disease. [...]

Pneumonia In Horses Is A Bacterial Infection

The bacteria that is most commonly associated with pneumonia or infections in the respiratory system in horses is the Streptococcal bacteria group. These microscopic bacteria are found in the air and in healthy horses they are breathed in and destroyed by the immune system, not resulting in any infections or problems. In unhealthy horses or horses that are weak, fatigued or stressed or horses that are exposed to huge number of the Streptococcal bacteria at one time the body may not be able to fight off the bacteria, resulting in pneumonia. Horses that are more likely to develop pneumonia include young foals with poorly developed immune systems, over trained or over worked horses, horses that are kept in overcrowded stables or pastures or horse that are trailered long distances and stressed. Of course horses that already have a pre-existing health condition are also much more at risk, as are horses that have chronic respiratory problems, worms, or problems with fluid on the lungs or esophageal damage from choke. [...]

Potomac Fever: A Seasonal Bacterial Infection

There are many names for Potomac Horse Fever including Equine Ehrlichial Colitis, Equine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis and Acute Equine Diarrhea Syndrome or more simply PHF. Whatever you want to call the condition, the symptoms are always the same. Not all horses that are exposed to Potomac fever get the same severe signs, some seem to recover without assistance while others can become fatally ill. Horses develop Potomac Fever in the summer and it was originally believed that the bacteria (Neorickettsia risticii) lives in rodents or other small mammals during the rest of the year. It is now more known that the bacteria actually are found in snails and flukes found in fresh water streams and ponds. It is thought that horses drinking or walking through these areas contract the bacteria resulting in the transmission. In addition the biting insects that are hatched in the water are likely to feed on the tiny flukes in the water, thereby infecting themselves. [...]

Rabies - A Rare But Fatal Disease In Horses

Literally any mammal can become ill with rabies if exposed to the virus. Rabies is caused by a group of viruses known collectively as rhabdovirus. Most commonly dogs, skunks, raccoons, foxes and bats are diagnosed with rabies, but other animals such as cats, horses, goats, cows, sheep and even people can get the disease if bitten by a rabid animal. Rhabdovirus is considered to be zoonotic, which means it can be transferred between species and between animals and humans. Although it is highly unlikely a human could get rabies from a horse, inadvertent direct contact with the saliva under the right conditions could occur. All horses that are diagnosed with rabies will die, typically in three to five days of the first sign of the disease. Since effective vaccines are available to prevent the horse from developing rabies should he or she be exposed, it is well worth the addition of the vaccine to the regular schedule. [...]

Rhinopneumonitis: Common In Young Horses Under Three

Rhinopnuemonitis is more commonly known by its more descriptive name, Snots. This is because this virus, which is actually a form of the equine herpes virus, lives in the mucosal membranes of the nasal cavity and is most easily identified by the large amounts of mucous that are discharged from the nose as well as a dry, hacking cough. Equine herpes virus is present in most adult horses, but the horse's immune system is able to keep the virus under control so it does not affect the horse under normal conditions. In young horses that don't have a fully developed immune system or that are being exposed to many different viruses at the same time the immune system may not be able to control the development of the virus, resulting in the symptoms. It appears that the rhinopneumonitis occurs in mild stages over a three to seven day cycle and then will clear up on its own. In actuality the virus is still present in the lymph nodes of the horse and will be for life. [...]

Ringbone And Lameness In Older Working Horses

Long known as a problem condition in older, working horses, ringbone continues to be a concern for horse owners around the world. Ringbone is a condition that includes swelling and changes to the bones and joints of the pastern in either the front or back legs. Ringbone is basically a new bony growth that occurs on any one of the bones in the pastern, it can occur in the pastern joint itself (high ringbone) or can occur lower in the foot in the coffin joint (low ringbone). Ringbone is a form of osteoarthritis and may be a result of several factors. The more factors that are present or have occurred in the horse's life the more severe and problematic the ringbone is likely to be. The major cause of ringbone is repetitive trauma to the pastern through sudden stops, turns and changes of direction. Many western stock horses, cutting horses and polo ponies develop ringbone as they are constantly and suddenly changing directions at high speeds and with great frequency. [...]

Are Ringed Or Ribbed Hooves Anything To Be Worried About?

If you have ever looked closely at a the surface of a horse's hoof you will notice that they tend to have rings that run round the hoof, some which are somewhat raised and wide and some that are less pronounced and narrow. These rings are indicators of the growth from the cornet or top of the hoof and indicate any number of issues, much like the rings on the inside of a tree mark periods of growth. A foal's hooves will be very smooth, simply because they have had a consistent environment when they were carried by the mare. Once the foal is out on pasture he or she will go through periods where they are stressed, where they have lots to eat, and where they are experiencing lots of exercise and movement or very little. Each of those factors will affect the ring on the hoof and will leave either a raised or flat ring, or a wide or narrow ring. [...]

Spavin and Horses: To Ride Or Not To Ride?

Spavin is a term used to indicate any type of swelling, either soft or hard, that develops on or around the hock that is not related specifically to a joint injury. Many types of spavin are soft to the touch and are actually the swelling of a ligament or muscle and will not cause permanent lameness to the horse provided they are properly cared for. Any horse or foal with spavin should be checked for problems with the conformation. Often corrective shoeing, especially in young horses, will help prevent further problems with the soft and bony types of spavin. The most common soft type of spavin includes bog spavin, which is a soft lump that usually forms down from the hock and is caused by a ligament swelling. Many horses that have sickle-hocks or hocks that are bent more than normal will have bog spavin. Ice packs and anti-inflammatories as well as rest and recovery is usually all that is needed. Corticosteroid injections may also be used to reduce swelling. [...]

Found [159] Articles :: Page 10 of 11
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