Genetic Disorders
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Articles > Keywords > Genetic Disorders

Genetic Disorders

Found [146] Articles :: Page 10 of 10


OAAM In Arabians

OAAM is actually the abbreviation for the congenital condition known as Occipital Atlanto-Axial Malformation that occurs almost exclusively in Arabian horses. This condition results in a fusing of the spinal vertebrae in the neck and where the neck and skull join. The results of this lethal condition may initially be mild to debilitating and severe as the foal will have limited movement of the neck throughout its short life. In severe cases paralysis and extreme lack of coordination will also be noted as the foal tries to move. OAAM can be diagnosed when the foal is less than one month old although in some cases it can be weeks before it is identified and diagnosed. In early diagnosed cases it is often very severe as the foal is unable to position his or her head correctly to nurse. The spine has fused so tightly at the base of the skull that they are not able to extend the head into the correct position to access the mare. In addition the foal may not be able to stand or to move once he or she is in the standing position. OAAM will cause the gross motor muscles or the large muscles of the body to lack control resulting in poor if any coordination. [...]

The Puzzle Of Paralysis

There are many different types of genetic, infectious, viral and even toxicity issues that can result in permanent or temporary paralysis of horses. Since there are so many possible triggers to a horse's inability to move it is critical to try to decide what has caused the condition before treatment is started. Keeping good records of feeds, pastures, vaccinations as well as contact with other horses or any changes in exercise or behavior prior to the paralysis is essential to help the vet in knowing what the most likely causes are. Paralysis in horses can affect one leg, both front or both back legs or the whole body. Depending on which limbs are affected the paralysis may be severely debilitating or it may be manageable. Temporary paralysis of one back leg may not be a paralysis at all, rather it may be a condition known as locked stifle where a ligament has simply caught on the stifle, preventing the horse from bending the leg. This type of condition is usually corrected by massaging of the stifle and manipulation of the limb to correct the lock. [...]

Brittle Hoof Can Cause Long Term Soundness Problems

Brittle hoof is one of the many horse conditions that both explains as well as labels a health problem. Brittle hoof is exactly what you would think, a condition where the hoof itself, including the horn and the hoof wall or exterior, becomes dry and cracks easily, leading to lameness as well as the chance that fungus and bacteria can get into the hoof. Brittle hoof is common in some breeds, leading researchers to believe that there is a hereditary component to the condition. Breeds that are more prone to brittle hoof include Welsh Ponies and New Forest Ponies, but almost any other type of chunky horse or pony, often described as cobby, can have the condition in their line. Horses that are raised in very wet or soft and moist pastures or areas that are then moved to dry, sandy or stabled conditions with straw or pellets for bedding may also develop the condition, due to the change in the surface that is in contact with the hoof. [...]

Pin-Toes Cause Stress On Joints

Pin-toes, so named because the toes actually point in towards each other rather than straight forward can be very problematic for the horse and are not just a conformation problem. The normal horse's hoof is made up of the toe or rounded front part, the quarters or sides of the hoof and the heel or back of the hoof. In a correctly conformed horse the toe of the hoof should point directly forward and the hoof wall or the strong outer part of the hoof as well as the frog or spongy cushion of the back of the hoof should allow equal weight distribution as well as correct alignment of the fetlock, knee, stifle, shoulder, hip and pelvic bones. Usually pin-toes occur on the front feet although they may also occur in the back. Pin-toes are usually congenital, or the foal is born with the inward turning of the feet. Often this is also seen in prior generations within specific lines, but it can also be due to growth problems and joint malformations due to OCD or degenerative joint disease. [...]

SCID In Arabians

SCID fully known as severe combined immunodeficiency disease, is an autosomal recessive gene that has been identified in Arabian horses or Arabian cross horses. It is interesting to note that a similar condition exists in mice and humans, as well as several other species. An autosomal recessive gene is a gene pair that has to be inherited one from the dam and one from the sire, resulting in both parents contributing the recessive gene. Once the foal has a recessive gene for SCID from both parents, he or she will have the condition. The parents, each having only one copy of the gene, are considered to be carriers, even though they will show no signs of the genetic condition. It is estimated that 1 of every 567 Arabian foals will have SCID and approximately 82.9 percent of the population of Arabians are clear, which means they do not carry the recessive gene for SCID. SCID affects both male and female foals equally, so it is not sex linked in nature. [...]

Hind Leg Conformation and Sickle-Hocks

The hock is the joint that is about half way down the back leg and most closely resembles the bent elbow of a human. The hock is the joint that gives the horse thrust by straightening out the leg either for forward or upward movement. Since the weight of the horse in turns and forward and upward movements is on the hock, good conformation is essential to ensure that the joint will stay strong and solid throughout the horse's life. There are several different conformation problems that can occur, most which are congenital or are present from birth. One problem is hocks that are too straight, which is known as post legged. These horses have little thrust and often have poor pastern positioning, resulting in joint and foot problems as the horse ages. Sickle hocks are the opposite problem to a post legged horse. A horse with sickle hocks has too much bend in the hock, leading to a bowed shape in the lower leg rather than the correct conformation. In severe cases of sickle-hock the horse appears to be pulling the bottom of the leg, known as the cannon bone, up and under the body. [...]

Spinal Cord Compression: Understanding the Causes In Horses

The horse's spine is incredibly important in all aspects of the horse's daily life. It is the structure that allows the horse to carry his or her weight, plus it also is necessary for the lowering and raising of the neck as well as movement of the legs. The spine of the horse is not like a humans that is very flexible and mobile. A horse's spine is more rigid and designed to be relatively inflexible to keep the horse stable and balanced. In addition the spinal cord of the horse is the protection for the spinal cord that carries nerve impulses to the body allowing movement and body functions to occur in an appropriate fashion. When spinal cord compression occurs, the individual vertebrae that make up the spine from the skull through to the tail push up directly against one another, causing pain and varying degrees of immobility, largely dependent on where the spinal cord compression occurs. Some diseases such as Wobbler's Syndrome are directly related to spinal compression, but it can also be caused by hereditary factors, injury, diseases and congenital defects. [...]

Spongy Hoof - The Opposite Of Dry Hoof

Spongy hoof is just the opposite of brittle, dry hoof complications. Spongy hoof occurs when the hoof is too moist, and the soft wall or horn of the hoof is easily damaged by normal activity. This is just as problematic for the horse as dry hoof and the inside, sensitive area of the hoof is more likely to be injured as well as nicks and gouges in the hoof wall allow fungus and bacteria to penetrate the hoof wall. Many horses that have been bred in very wet climates as may be seen in some parts of Great Britain and on the coastal areas of the United States are more prone to problems with spongy hoof. When these horses are kept in the wet, soft environment their large, flatter hooves are an asset, but once moved to dry, abrasive type ground conditions the trouble begins. [...]

Wobbler's Syndrome Is Not Always EPM

Often the characteristic gait, lack of coordination and "wobbling" movement that suddenly occurs in horses is automatically assumed to be EPM or Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Since this is one of the most common neurological diseases found in horses in North American, it is often noted by equine specialists that the lack of coordination and irregular gait is a common misdiagnosis. In reality the condition may be a compression of the vertebrae in the neck that is causing the horse's movement problems. Wobbler's syndrome is caused by either an injury or degeneration of the vertebrae that crushes them together, damaging the spinal cords ability to send impulses down the spinal column and to properly orchestrate movement. Narrowing of the spinal cord space in the vertebrae, known as stenosis, is also present in many affected horses. Often Wobbler's syndrome will only affect the front legs and may become progressively more pronounced over time. [...]

The Future Of The Arabian Breed

There is both a positive and a negative side to being the most popular breed of horses worldwide. The positive side is that there is a large genetic pool for breeding purposes, plus there is little chance that the breed will dwindle in numbers or become extinct. The negative side is that many people tend to get involved in breeding, resulting in horses that are bred with less than desirable qualities due to the breeders simply not knowing enough about the breed. One of the major concerns with the future of the Arabian horse breed is the different groups that define and recognize the Arabian horse worldwide. Some groups such as the World Arabian Horse Association will accept almost any Arabian listed in any Stud Book in the world as Arabian as long as the ancestory can be traced back to the Arabian desert. The Al Khamsa Arabian horses must be Arabians that can be traced directly back to the Bedouin horse breeders of the Arabian desert or Arabian peninsula and can have no influence from other lines. [...]

Endocrine Disorders In Dogs

The endocrine system plays a very important part in the regulation and control of all the other systems with the body. This is true for any type of animal, including us as humans. The endocrine system is comprised of different organs and tissues that actually produce the hormones in the body, which in turn regulate all the other body functions from brain functioning through to reproduction. [...]

Found [146] Articles :: Page 10 of 10
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