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One of the most distinguishing features of the Bulldogs, either English or French is their unique very small, often very kinky or corkscrew tail. This is a breed trait and while common is typically considered a fault or must be clearly defined as a screwed tail with definite kinks. A corkscrew tail may also be called an ingrown or internalized tail and is not as commonly noted in any other breed other than the Bulldog. Occasionally a Shar Pei or Bichon Frise may have what is known as a corkscrew tail or pig tail, but this is typically considered a disqualifying fault in these breeds.
The Bulldog often have a growth problem in the tail that actually leads to the tail growing inwards instead of outwards. This tends to leave a rather large, or small, depending on the age and size of the dog, cleft or indentation just where the tail would normally be. [...]
There are several differences in the human skeletal structure and that of a dog, but there are just as many similarities. The spine of both a human and dog is made up of a series of small vertebrae that form the solid structure of the spine. Each one of the vertebrae is made of bone, and if not cushioned from each other would be very painful and cause pressure and pinching of the delicate bundle of nerves known as the spinal cord that travels through the center of the vertebrae. To provide cushioning between each vertebrae there is a series of flexible cartilage discs known as intervertebral discs between each. These discs provide the movement of the spine as well as protection for the spinal cord during movement and protection of the bones of the vertebrae from rubbing and wearing. [...]
Premature disc degeneration is a disease in which a dog's vertebral discs begin to degenerate more rapidly than could be naturally expected. Degeneration might effect either the discs themselves in that they can become calcified and less mobile, or the spaces between the discs when cartilaginous cushions begin to deteriorate. It is classified under the generalized heading of premature aging and has many profound effects upon a dog's overall health, causing at best chronic pain and at worst loss of motor function.
Premature disc degeneration usually begins to occur in dogs that are between three and five years old, and seems to affect the discs in the cervical region of the spine most often. Depending on which discs are affected, the problem manifests itself visually in a variety of different ways. [...]
Canine rheumatism is a degenerative disease that affects the joints and cartilage of an otherwise healthy dog. It can occur in most any breed at almost any age, with no real warning signs. Canine rheumatism is a progressive disease, which means that it will not get better without treatment, and even with treatment, it usually tends to get worse over time. The ultimate result of rheumatism tends to be the total destruction of cartilage cushioning between joints and the death of cells that produce that cartilage. As a result, these bones grind together very painfully, and motor function can be lost altogether.
Canine rheumatism most often occurs as the result of either trauma or bacterial infection, and is most prevalent in dogs that have already reached middle age, as well as older dogs. That said, it can easily happen in younger dogs as well, especially if they're of one of the breeds that are predisposed to joint ailments such as hip dysplasia. [...]
Swollen hock syndrome is most common in the Shar Pei breed and goes by many different names, depending on where you are and what the local breeders are referring to the condition as. In some areas it is called Familial Shar Pei Fever, Hock Fever or Systemic Amyloidosis. Not a true fever as such, swollen hock syndrome is caused by an inability of the body, namely the kidneys and liver, to correctly break down and remove amyloidal proteins from the body. These amyloids can collect in the joints, bones and muscles resulting in the swelling and tenderness in the legs, muzzle and other muscles of the body. [...]
As with most types of medical symptoms or conditions there is always more than one possible cause for spinal paralysis in dogs. Understanding what caused the paralysis in the first place is essential in being able to successfully diagnose, treat and even limit the progression of the paralysis. Since there are so many different possible causes of spinal paralysis understanding what the causes are for your breed of dog is important.
In the long, low to the ground breeds with stubby legs and longer backs such as Dachshunds and Basset Hounds spinal paralysis is often caused by intervertebral disc disease that is caused by the rupturing of the discs putting pressure on the spinal cord and resulting in paralysis. [...]
One of the more catastrophic ailments that can affect your large-breed dog is a condition known as Wobbler Syndrome, or clinically as cervical vertebral instability.
This syndrome occurs when the spinal cord is compressed in the cervical (neck) area. This compression, or pinching, happens because the vertebra through which the cord passes is malformed or misaligned. The compression injures the part of the spinal cord that's necessary for an animal to stand and/or move normally.
What causes these deformities in the vertebrae isn't yet known, but it is believed to be related to both genetics and nutrition. In some young dogs, Wobbler can develop if the animal is fed a diet excessively high in protein, calcium and phosphorus, in an attempt to accelerate the growth process. This is believed to cause the skeletal changes that occur in some affected dogs. [...]
Much like other large breeds, hip dysplasia is a disorder that can affect the ball and socket joint of the hind legs in some Chinese Foos. Mostly seen in the larger sized dogs of the breed, hip dysplasia in usually an inherited disorder that is passed on from generation to generation. It can also appear in dogs that grow too quickly or do not have managed meals. In this article, weâ€™ll take a look at what hip dysplasia is, how it can be treated and how you can prevent it from developing in your Chinese Foo. [...]
Arthritis means joint inflammation, but the term is somewhat misleading because arthritis is much more than joint inflammation and cats do contract many forms of arthritis depending upon the breed and external factors. The particular forms of arthritis that cats suffer from are: Traumatic Arthritis (sprain) and Osteoarethritis, from there, there are several diseases that belong to one group or the other.
Traumatic Arthritis as the name implies occurs when there is some sort of a trauma, (sprain) injury. In cats that could be the result of being hit by a moving vehicle, a cat fight, or bad fall. If the trauma is a result of a simple sprain chances are the pain will go away in no time and is really not that serious. However, if the traumatic arthritis is more serious, resulting from being hit by a car or other serious accident, a fracture may occur in the joint and your cat may require surgery to repair the damage. [...]
As we know, the bone structure that is needed in the process of chewing food is the jaw. The entire vault of the mouth is referred to as the jaw. There is an upper and lower jaw. The Maxilla is the upper jaw and the mandible is the lower jaw.
Certain dogs or cats have problems with the alignment of the jaws. If the upper jaw protrudes it is called an overshot in dental terms or an overbite in layman terms. If the lower jaw protrudes it is called and undershot or under bite.
Persian cats are subject to teeth and jaw problems. Since Exotic Shorthairs have much of the same genotype as the Persian and Himalayan Cat, they too will suffer from same teeth and jaw problems. These cats can have crocked teeth, sometimes the baby teeth are crooked but the adult teeth will grow in normal which is straight. [...]
Hip Dysplasia refers to a deformity of the hip joint, which leads to arthritis if left untreated. This condition is very painful. Up until recently it was only large breeds of dogs that were diagnosed with hip dysplasia. Veterinarians are now realizing that all breeds of cats can have the disease as well. The Devon Rex has been reported to have a 40% likelihood of contracting the disease. The prevalence in the Main Coon Cat, Persian, and Himalayan drops down to about 20 percent and domestic housecats less than 5 percent.
It is believed that larger breeds of cats will more often suffer from dysplasia than smaller cats. The reason for this is that the larger the bones the less protective cushioning of muscle and sinuous tissue surrounding them. Less protective cushioning leads to greater risk for hip displacement. [...]
Lameness is a very common problem found in felines. Lameness can be caused by a number of factors contributing to the cat's inability to walk normally. Lameness refers specifically to walking with a limp or having difficulty walking. Essentially, the various reasons for difficulty in walking can be attributed to some disease of the musculoskeletal system brought on by genetic factors, trauma to the bones, virus and other infections, and arthritis.
Yet, in many cases the root cause of lameness is really not known. Listed here are some conditions and diseases where lameness is known to occur. [...]
Osteosarcoma is a form of bone cancer that tends to be most commonly diagnosed in middle aged to senior dogs. Any breed can develop osteosarcoma but the larger heavier boned breeds tend to be the most prone to the condition. The breeds most often associated with the condition include the giant and large breeds such as the Great Dane, Newfoundland, St. Bernard, Irish Wolfhound, Rottweiler, Labrador, Golden Retriever, Boxer and Weimaranar. The group of dogs that weigh over 80 pounds are the most commonly affected, with this weight range 60% are more likely to develop the cancer than any lighter breeds of dogs. Males of any breed are more commonly diagnosed with the condition than females, perhaps because the bones tend to be heavier and more developed in males of most breeds. [...]
Any breed of horse or pony can be affected by inflammation in the muscles and joints. In many cases this inflammation or swelling is due to infections, injury and less commonly to congenital genetic conditions. In any horse with inflammation it is important to determine the cause of the swelling and heat in order to correct the problem and help prevent further occurrences.
A horse's body responds to pain or injury by flooding the area with fluids to prevent further injury and to supply red and white blood cells to the area to combat the infection and bacteria. This is all triggered by hormones and chemicals released by the injured or infected cells that trigger the production of three different compounds or hormones that react in different ways within the body. Prostacyclin is the first compound released, which results in the expansion or dilation of the blood vessels in the area of the injury or infection. This allows a greater amount of blood flow to the area to fight the infection and to supply nutrients to the damaged cells. [...]
OCD is a degenerative bone disease that is found in many types of animals, including horses. Osteochondritis dissecans or OCD is most commonly associated with younger horses that are rapidly growing and developing, and is also typically associated with horses that have longer leg bones. Longer leg bones means taller horses, so usually breeds that have a mature height of over 15 hands are more prone to OCD but it can also be seen occasionally in smaller and shorter horses. What is interesting is that there seems to be no difference between the tall heavy horses and the tall lighter horses, so weight itself is not the key factor, it is the length of the bones.
In normal growing horses the ends of the bones that meet up at the joints are soft and this is where the growth occurs. As the cartilage becomes hard it adds to the length of the bone, resulting in growth. In horses with OCD the softer, growing ends of the bone do not harden, rather they stay soft and actually begin to break down, resulting in pain, swelling and lameness that may seem initially to move throughout the limbs. [...]