All patterns and colors are acceptable, including black and tan, brindle, parti-color, and solid colors such as black, blue, tan cream, brown, red, and sable. Blue and black Pomeranians are particularly valued in North America, but a large number of the Pomeranians you'll see on a daily basis are parti-colored, often with a darker face than the rest of their bodies.
7-12 inches tall
Pomeranians are perfectly suited to indoor living, and will even do quite well in an apartment. They are spirited dogs, and do require exercise. However, due to their size, they can get most of what they need running around the house. They can be picky eaters, and since they need to be fed dry dog food in order to prevent tooth loss, feeding them can be a problem. They can get overheated because of their large amount of fur, and should not be left outdoors or in a car in hot weather. However, they are quite tolerant of cold temperatures, though they should not be left outdoors in severe cold either, simply because of their size.
Pomeranians are short and small toy dogs. In fact, they're one of the smallest dog breeds in the world. They have soft dense undercoats with an abundance of outer coat that is coarsely textured. They have heavily plumed tails that lie flat on their backs. They are medium boned and sturdy in appearance, despite their small size.
The Pomeranian should have a head that is in good balance to the rest of the body, with a short, straight muzzle. They have very alert expressions and often look very much like a small fox. Their ears are very small and erect and are mounted high on the head. They have a very large ruff around the neck that is an important part of their overall appearance. Their eyes are dark and almond shaped and very bright and alert in appearance. They have a black nose and teeth that meet in a scissors bite. Their necks are short and they carry their heads quite high.
Pomeranians are very vivacious and extroverted, which is one of the reasons that this breed tends to be a great show dog. They have a smooth gait and appear very well balanced. Once trained, they will be a standout in the show ring, because they truly enjoy the limelight and love to be watched.
You'll sometimes hear those selling puppies refer to "teacup Pomeranians". Those dogs described as "teacup" typically weigh less than three pounds. It's important to note that there is no official "teacup" variety of Pomeranian. A Pomeranian weighing three pounds or less is likely just the runt of the litter or has health problems. The AKC considers a weight of less than three pounds to be a fault.
The Pomeranian has a double coat, which is one of its most noticeable features. The undercoat sheds constantly. The undercoat is soft and dense, but the outer coat is long and straight, with a very coarse texture. Their coats are very thick and stand off from the body, making the dog look significantly larger than he really is. The coat on the head and legs is tightly packed and shorter than that on the body. The forequarters and hindquarters are typically well feathered. Trimming of the Pomeranian's hair on a regular basis is essential to keeping this breed looking neat.
The Pomeranian is a descendant of the ancient Spitz breeds of the far north. These original Spitz family dogs were the sled dogs from Iceland and Lapland. These breeds were brought to Europe from the Prussian region of Pomerania (an area that's part of Germany and Poland today) and used to herd sheep. These original dogs weighed as much as 30 pounds. In the 1800's Queen Victoria established a kennel for breeding these dogs, but asked the breeders to develop a breed in a smaller size, since she preferred small dogs. Over time, the breed was developed down to its current size of 4-5 pounds. The Pomeranian that we know today was not in existence until the 19th century. Because of their natural showmanship, this breed became a favorite among those who like to show dogs and among the circus. Pomeranians are talented at agility and many types of tricks.
Many famous people have been Pomeranian owners. These include Marie Antoinette, Emile Zola, Mozart, Michelangelo and Thomas Edison. It is said that Edison's Pomeranian spilled ink on papers containing information that he had spent 20 years researching. Michelangelo's was said to have watched him as he painted the Sistine Chapel. Queen Victoria owned multiple Pomeranians.
Pomeranians are extremely intelligent and extroverted. They are very spirited dogs, and do well with spirited owners. They prefer a lot of interaction with their owners, which is why they are often used as companion dogs for single people. Due to the dog's small size, they are easy to transport, and love going everywhere with their humans.
Because of their small size, Pomeranians are not good dogs for small children. When children play rough with this sort of dog it can often make the dog fearful, nervous and snappish. In addition, the rough play of small children can easily injure this delicate toy breed. However, these dogs do quite well with older children who are calmer and more well behaved. If you choose a Pomeranian for a family with children, it is just as important to train the children as it is to train the dog.
Pomeranians can have a tendency to be yippy, and will often bark far too much. To make matters worse, many Pomeranians have a very high pitched bark that can be especially irritating. However, if you begin training them at an early age, you can teach the dog to bark only when appropriate.
Pomeranians tend to be very willful and dominant in their personalities, so early training is critical. They are somewhat cocky, and often will not hesitate to take on a dog that is four or five times their size, as they seem to have no recognition of how small they are. Because of these tendencies, training your Pomeranian thoroughly and at a young age is critical. They are independent and curious and are usually happy and alert dogs. They are full of energy and active, but since they are so small, they are not usually a nuisance. They love to do tricks and bond well to their owners, but are not typically overly clingy. They don't like to be left alone for long periods of time, so this is not necessarily a good breed for the family who is gone all day long.
Pomeranians can do well with other pets in the home, but they should be introduced early, since this breed has a tendency to be very dominant.
Pomeranians are prone to several different Health Problems. The most notable problem is early tooth loss, which is quite common in this breed. To prevent tooth loss, feed your Pomeranian a Diet of dry dog food to help keep his teeth and gums in good condition. In addition, it's important to have your Pomeranian's teeth cleaned professionally once a year. Pomeranians can also be prone to eye and skin infections and some lines are prone to dislocated knee caps and Slipped stifle.
Pomeranians are also prone to dry eyes, tear duct disorders and Cataracts, all of which can cause blindness. Patent ductus arteriosis, a congenital heart defect is common in Pomeranians, as is collapsing trachea. Both of these problems can be quite serious. Before you purchase a Pomeranian puppy from a breeder, it's important to understand the puppy's lineage, so that you know what Health Problems he is likely to have inherited. It's also critical to have your Pomeranian receive regular veterinary care, since this breed does tend to have more Health problems than many other breeds, and because, like other toy breeds, this dog is generally fragile.
The Pomeranian requires a fair amount of grooming. They are constant shedders and their long coats must be brushed frequently to keep them from getting tangled and matted. In addition, regular brushing helps prevent dandruff, which can be a problem with Pomeranians, and leads to itchy skin. However, if you brush the Pomeranian properly, starting at the head, parting the hair and brushing it forward, it will fall right into place. Pomeranians are very heavy shedders, so brushing them every day will also help you keep the hair at bay. Their eyes and ears should be cleaned daily, as they are prone to infections, and their teeth must be regularly cared for by the veterinarian, as well as receiving daily, or at least weekly, brushing at home. Feeding them dental treats and vitamin treats can help with their tooth problems, too.
When you need to shampoo your Pomeranian, dry shampoo works best, as regular shampoos can cause the dog to lose the natural oils in his coat. If you must shampoo with wet shampoo, keep shampooing to a minimum and be certain to use a mild shampoo especially formulated not to dry out the hair and skin. Since Pomeranians are prone to dry itchy skin, it's important to keep their natural oils intact.
Pomeranians need a moderate amount of exercise, but can get what they need from running around in the house. They also love to walk, and can get sufficient exercise by just going on a daily walk with their owner. Though they are small, they can go on long walks without becoming overly tired. You'll find that this breed is energetic, but at the same time does not need a significant amount of exercise.
The Pomeranian can be quite a willful and dominant dog, so training must begin early and must be consistent. It's very important that your Pomeranian knows that you're the boss. If this fact is not established early on, this breed can become very demanding and possessive of their owners and will refuse to listen to even the simplest commands. It is also important that these dogs are socialized early on to prevent them from being overly suspicious of strangers. Spend plenty of time working on appropriate and inappropriate barking, as Pomeranians are known to be excessive barkers when not properly.
It is imperative that your Pomeranian be taught not to be underfoot. Because of their small size, a Pomeranian can be seriously injured if he is stepped or sat on. They love to sleep under blankets and pillows, where they can be difficult to detect and easy to sit on. In addition, a Pomeranian can seriously injure himself or even kill himself if he jumps out of your arms or off the back of a high couch. Pomeranians are notoriously hard to housebreak. Because they are so small, they can sneak off to any little corner and go to the bathroom without you ever knowing it. And, of course, once they've gone in the house, the pattern is established. This is one breed for which crate training is absolutely necessary. They should not be allowed to roam the house unsupervised for many months, until their bodies are mature enough to hold their urine and they are well trained enough to understand the appropriate places to go.
However, these dogs are very intelligent, and with the proper training, can be taught to do nearly anything they need to do. They love to do tricks and can be quite proficient at them. Pomeranians are very curious and inquisitive. This makes them somewhat easy to train, but does mean that you'll need to train them in a place where they can be focused, with few distractions.
Once properly trained, Pomeranians are suitable for many types of tasks. Because their energy level is high, they can be very hard workers. In the past, Pomeranians have been used for search and rescue dogs, particularly in post earthquake searches, where small dogs are needed to locate survivors. In addition, they are often used as the therapy dogs for the elderly and ill. Finally, they can be trained to be used as companion dogs for the hearing impaired.